Saturday, February 27, 2016

Indoborneonatural --- Life Banjar in South Kalimantan closely with the culture of the river, as illustrated in Banjar traditional settlement on the outskirts of the river and the floating market activity (floating market). Berbanjar elongated housing built on the riverbank, and this area is called the "banjar".

Banjar traditional settlement can be found in an area crossed by rivers large and small, such as along the Barito River with its subsidiaries include Nagara River, River Paminggir and Martapura River. Along the Nagara River with its tributaries, among others Tabalong River Left, Right Tabalong River, River Balago, Sungai Batang Alai, Amandit River, and the River Tapin. Barito River tributary empties into the Java Sea, while other rivers such as Slippery Rock River, River Tabanio, Sungai Asam-asam, Kintap River, and the River Bangkalaan are rivers that empty into the Java Sea and the Makassar Strait.

Among the many rivers that, the most important watershed in the history of Banjar is Tabalong river and the river Martapura. The concentration of settlements are along the river from Tabalong, Exodus, Alabio, Banar River, Amuntai, Babirik, Nagara, Rampiau Muara, Muara Materials up to Banjarmasin (Saleh, 1986).

Settlement terms defined language as a living area that can be defined as the unit area social and cultural life of a society and ecologically is an interaction region to cultivate the potential of the natural environment.

Settlement communities along the river are usually inhabited by local communities (community) or a population that occupies an area characterized by a unique identity as kinship groups, known as stamp. Therefore, community villages along the river are usually called by the name of the place they are generally on the banks of the river, like the Nagara, the Barito, the Alabio, the Amuntai, or stamp River Jingah, stamp River Mesa, stamp Alalak, and so forth.

Various settlements along the river Martapura Tabalong and then also serves as a river port which later also became royal centers such as Tanjung Puri, Country Dipa, State Daha, and Bandarmasih (Banjarmasin). As the Sartono Kartodirjo et al (1975) downtown royal government, the city and the market are the three functions of the area where the royal establishment on the banks of the river and the coast.

So many rivers that drain the geographic region of South Kalimantan, making the river becomes contribute to community life Banjar South Kalimantan in particular and the general. Because the role of being a vehicle for cross-river transport, and communication between remote areas with local riverbanks and coastal areas. Similarly river formed through interactions between the human diversity of ethnic, religious, cultural and economic background. Interactions between humans thus, in turn forming relationships that are economic, socio-cultural, and political.

Sungailah awoke from human interaction that produces a river culture or culture of people who are influenced by the environment of the river. Understanding the culture of the river includes a way of life, behavior, and adaptation of human beings who live on the edge of the river, it has become a tradition that is carried from generation to generation (Hartatik, 2004).

One form of the culture of the river is the floating market (floating market), which still exists today in the village Kuin, Banjarmasin and particularly in the Lok Baintan, Banjar district. The existence of floating market is inseparable from the culture of the river Banjar tribe. Because the river for Banjar people, especially those living on the banks along the river, not only as a place transportation flow or movement of people, but a trade commodity marketing and fulfillment household needs, such as drinking, bathing, and others.

Kuin floating market presence can be traced since the advent of the royal palace on the outskirts of Banjar Kuin river. Keraton formerly always not far apart the city, the main square, and the mosque. Airports in the Sultanate of Banjar first is at the mouth of the river Kuin. This is where there is interaction between sellers and buyers in the form of buying and selling on a boat, or between people living on the outskirts of the river with boating merchants. It can be said, that the existence of floating market can only be examined from the cultural aspects of the river, which produces human behavior in addressing economic needs, and were based on domination of the transport boat on the river, thus forming buyer and seller interaction center, known as the floating market.

Their dominance of transport by river is the deciding factor sustainability of the floating markets, both in Kuin and Lok Baintan today. If the first people of the city of Banjarmasin attached to the transport stream, so as to instil a culture floating market or the number of people who peddle wares by boat. However, when the orientation of trade economic activity moved from the river to the land area, along with the improvement of transport cross the road around the floating market, the activity is now in Muara Kuin floating market began to fade; not as busy as the first again.

According Idwar Saleh M. (1986) with the establishment of concentration of population settlement patterns berbanjar along river banks, the main factor is the river. River for residents who live on the banks of the river to meet the needs and defend their lives, both from the aspect of transport and mobility, economic, social, cultural, and political. From the concentration of people and their interaction with the river, it gives birth to the culture of the river. Banjar community life evolved over the river which makes the characteristics and culture of Banjar.
Associated with the transport stream, since time immemorial Banjar people own and control the boat building technology in various forms and types of purposes both for the river, the beach and the ocean. The ability to instantly make people have a tradition of sailing Banjar well as sailors, fishermen and traders among islands (interensuler).

The ability to have, mastered the technology of making the boat and their tradition of sailing and trade between islands with traditional boats is what makes the Banjar has a high mobility, sailing from one island to another, went to the holy land, along the river until far into the interior, or migrate to looking for a new settlement.
Boat building technology mastery is reflected as reflected in the diversity of the river transportation boats or boat / canoe in various types and function. Jukung Banjar in the form and process of how pembikinannya known that there are three kinds, namely Jukung Sudur, jukung Patai and Jukung Batambit.

While the boats according to their functionality can be seen as a means of transport, to sell or trade, fishing, mining of sand and stones, transporting agricultural products, transportation and other services, even as well as residence owners. The various functions of boats that can be described as follows, namely (a) Jukung Pahumaan, (b) Jukung Paiwakan, (c) Jukung Paramuan, (d) Jukung Palambakan, (e) Jukung Pambarasan, (f) Jukung Gumbili, (g) Jukung Pamasiran, (h) Jukung Beca Banyu, (i) Jukung Getek, (j) Jukung Palanjaan, (k) Jukung Rombong, (l) Jukung / Boats mining, (m) Jukung Undaan, (n) Jukung Tiung. Besides jukung Banjar people usually use "klotok", the boats are quite large and equipped with a motor as a driving force, as well as the water bus, and speed boat for passengers and goods mengakut basic needs.

In terms of the settlement, the form of settlement in the river environment linear patterned always follow the flow of the river and the houses are always facing the river. Along the Barito River area still encountered Marabahan old houses or traces pole berbanjar building frame house overlooking the river, as since time immemorial river has become the lifeblood. Even now along the river, especially the Barito River, Rivers State, Amandit River, River Martapura still encountered houses built over the water's surface, known as "lanting".

Home form in general stilts with poles, floors, walls and roofs made of ironwood. The houses consist of various types or forms are distinguished by the form of the roof as high ridge, hall male, palimbangan, and so forth. At settlement on the banks of the river, between the houses to one another are connected by catwalks, and every home (extended family) have a stem, which is a kind of rafts are placed on the river front of the house that served as a shower, sink, and toilet (MCK), and tether boats at the same place. Each village usually has a surau or violated, the larger villages there jami mosque for Friday prayers. In addition, each village also mempunai market located at the intersection or the meeting of two rivers (Sunarningsih in Gunadi et al., 2004).

Water transport network is a major part of which became the lifeblood and driving the growth and development of Banjarmasin. The town is expected to start up in the second quarter of the 16th century was originally built at the mouth of the river banks Kuin and Alalak marked the establishment of "palace" of the Sultanate of Banjarmasin. Aside from being the center of the empire, -tepatnya in Banjarmasin city or delta-Tatas Island was also the administrative center of the Dutch East Indies. Then, since 1956 until now bears the title of the provincial capital of Banjarmasin in South Kalimantan (Subiyakto, 2004).

Geographically Banjarmasin River basin is located in the Barito and Martapura River that has many channels (Anjir / antasan, Handil / Tatah and saka). The canals were doubles, in addition to agricultural interests as well as transportation infrastructure, as well as container and channeling the water at high tide, so as to reduce the flood water and prevent flooding. Even the channel also serves as protection for the interests of defense built around the castle as contained in Fort Tatas.

In detail can be described, that the people of Banjar recognize three kinds of channels. First, Anjir (some call Antasan) which is a kind of primary channels that connect between the two rivers. Anjir serves the public interest by gravity as a farm irrigation system and means of transport. Second, Handil (there is also a mention Tatah) which is a sort of channel of the estuary at the river or at Anjir. Handil made to deliver water to the agricultural land lying areas. Handil smaller than Anjir and belong to a particular group or stamp. Third, Saka is a tertiary canals to deliver water that is usually taken from Handil. These channels are smaller than Handil and is a family-owned or private.

According Schophuys, canals form Anjir, Handil and Saka truly original work of Banjar community describes as irrigation systems Banjar. Anjir, Handil and Saka has the main function as agricultural irrigation in the broad sense and transport infrastructure to the regions, in addition to the need for drinking, washing and bathing.

Ability and habit of Banjar people answered the influence of the tidal river to create a channel is a privilege and prove the degree of civilization possessed. They were able to build a canal which extends for tens of kilometers only to force his hand. The canals were built using a very simple tool called Sundak, how to use it really rests on the strength of the hand. It is made of ironwood or thin steel plates measuring 20 cm wide and 35 cm long.

Banjar community builds many Anjir in Banjarmasin which is referred to as Antasan like Antasan Large, Small Antasan, Antasan Raden and Antasan Bondan. In the Dutch colonial administration, initiated by J.J. Meijer (1880), building a tightly Anjir fully use and the way labor Banjar. The idea was later implemented by W. Meijer Broers replacement, to start building Anjir tightly. Anjir connects Banjarmasin and Kapuas with width 30 m, length of 28 km and a depth of 3 m was completed in 1890.

In 1935 Morggenstorm rulers at that time doing repairs and cleaning Anjir tightly because of silting and dirty. It seems that it's a form of attention and maintenance of water infrastructure transfortasi. Even in 1938, Morggenstorm considers it necessary to add more of a Anjir, later called Anjir Tamban, built along the 32 km connecting the Barito and Kapuas Murung in the western part of the city of Banjarmasin.

At the time of independence, Ir. Prince Muhammad Noor as Minister of Public Works and Labour in the era of President Sukarno initiated the National canalisation project that will connect South Kalimantan region to West Kalimantan. However, unfortunately the program was discontinued.

Although it failed to build a great canal, does not mean the construction of canals to stop, even just continue. Two Anjir built again in 1950 at the same time, past governor Murjani ie Basarang and Anjir Anjir Kalampan. Then in 1961dibangun Anjir Balandean and follow Anjir barnacle 1965 which are both located in the northern part of the city of Banjarmasin.

Anjir development or Antasan of this, encouraging people to build many Handil Banjar or Tatah. According to Amir Kiai Hasan Bondan that between 1924 and 1927 Banjar people still continue to build Handil. Amounted to hundreds of pieces with a length of each Handil reach tens of kilometers. In the 1940s and 1950s re-built hundreds of new Handil. 

Handil-Handil were built at that time, especially in the area kelayan and Pemurus. Only a few instances like Tatah low, Tatah Pamangkih, Tatah Bangkal, Tatah Belayung, Tatah Pelatar, Handil Fall, Handil Bintangur, Handil Malintang, Handil Parit, Handil Babirik, Handil Kabuwau and others.

Likewise, the Saka, which were built by farmers Banjar with a width of between two to four meters and a depth of no more than 2.5 meters. While the length varies from one kilometer to 10 kilometers of the estuary can to Handil, Anjir even river. Saka's countless in Banjarmasin today almost is no longer recognizable. There is only one that until now is still unknown, and even then not in the form of Saka again, has become the name of a road through the village or Saka Permai.

Considering how many rivers and canals with kids branches in the city of Banjarmasin countless, so poetically and to more easily disebutlah Banjarmasin city as a city "Thousand Rivers".

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